Dr Johns was the Founding Director of the Sleep Disorders Unit at Epworth Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. He developed the ESS initially so he could assess the daytime sleepiness of patients in his own private practice of Sleep Medicine. The ESS was first published in 1991. The questionnaire was subsequently modified slightly in 1997 (see below). It has become the most frequently used method worldwide for assessing a person’s average level of daytime sleepiness in daily life.
The ESS is a simple questionnaire with 8 questions answered by the person undergoing the test. Each question is scored on a scale of 0-3 with the total tallied to a score between 0-24. The higher the score, the higher the person’s level of daytime sleepiness.
THE EPWORTH SLEEPINESS SCALE
How likely are you to doze off or fall asleep in the following situations, in contrast to feeling just tired? This refers to your usual way of life in recent times. Even if you have not done some of these things recently try to work out how they would have affected you. Use the following scale to choose the most appropriate number for each situation:
0 = no chance of dozing
1 = slight chance of dozing
2 = moderate chance of dozing
3 = high chance of dozing
- Sitting and reading _______
- Watching TV _______
- Sitting inactive in a public place (e.g a theater or a meeting) _______
- As a passenger in a car for an hour without a break _______
- Lying down to rest in the afternoon when circumstances permit _______
- Sitting and talking to someone _______
- Sitting quietly after a lunch without alcohol _______
- In a car, while stopped for a few minutes in traffic _______